My growing toddler

I have come to a stage in motherhood where my little pēpi is growing before my eyes and it seems like such a long time ago where he was rolling around on the floor, picking up anything and everything and in the mouth it goes. The transitioning stage from two – three years old is such an important time for any child’s development and also where they make the most connections within their brain that shapes the person they will become. My son, Kawai is 2 and half years old and I have seen such a developmental shift socially, physically, emotionally and his ability to understand. The relationships he has formed with his pāpa, brothers, grandparents, kaiako and other tamariki is truly something amazing to watch over. Relationships are very important for brain development as this is how we learn to communicate. Kawai has been with me at Play Learn Grow from 5 months old, I do believe this has played a massive impact on all these areas of his development.

Does your toddler seem to think they know everything? Because they are beginning to talk in sentences, and sometimes say things in a big confident voice, it’s easy to think your toddler is more grown up than they really are. I know from raising a young toddler, Kawai is very vocal and he will tell you what he wants and how he is feeling. My role as a parent is to always stay positive, encourage his curiosity, staying connected even while redirecting or correcting. Our toddlers feed off the energy that you present them with. Having a calm, chill presence around Kawai has definitely rubbed off on him. We are always striving for our tamariki to be confident and competent learners and communicators. (Ministry of Education, 2017).

Have you ever looked down and realise that your toddler is no longer there? I’ve had my fair few experiences of this moment and it is usually at supermarkets or shopping malls. It gives you that heart drop moment where the worst thoughts come to your mind about where your toddler is. They usually run away because they are most likely excited, love the freedom of running or simply bored. Tips and tricks to keep them occupied while you’re out and about is to get them involved on your trip to the mall or supermarket, let them help push the trolley. Kawai loves helping me put the items in the trolley and crossing the item off the shopping list. He also loves putting food in there that I eventually take out when he is not looking… that’s just what toddlers do.

Empowering our toddlers is a great way to stop those tantrums from arising. Making them feel powerful and confident in their ability to do tasks by themselves makes them competent little learners. They LOVE to learn by doing. Household chores are a great way to involve your toddler, it may add some extra time to what you are doing but they are learning and gaining new skills for the future and you’re bonding. For instance, Kawai loves taking out the compost and he considers that ‘his job’, he also enjoys helping me clean the shower with a scrubbing brush. Other examples of getting your toddler to help can be washing vegetables in the sink, wiping the table or kitchen top, passing you the clothes to hang on the washing line or washing pots and pans (unbreakable dishes) in the sink. Getting a good stool so that they can easily climb up and down is a great way of getting them involved in the kitchen and learning about food. Remember, these are life skills that your toddler will learn to develop as they get older, in return make your life easier.

Our toddlers are no longer little babies who is dependent on us 24/7, they are growing before our eyes and every moment is so special and critical for their development. I’m lucky to still be breastfeeding Kawai, even though sometimes I want him to stop, I love having that bond with him that started as soon as he entered the world. There is that connection that I have with him that he gets with no one else and I will be forever grateful to be able to breastfeed for so long. Cherish the moments that you have with your toddler because before you know it, they’ll be leaving the nest and walking through life on their own. It’s these important years that shape the person they will grow to be.

“Poipoia te kakano kia puawai”

Nurture the seed and it will blossom

‘Ako’ – To teach and to learn

Since begining my teaching journey I have been discovering my philosphy of teaching and what leads and guides my teaching practice. What I really love about working in a childcare centre is that I can learn something new everyday from my tamariki. It’s amazing how curious and smart they are to be able to teach kaiako about the world through their eyes. It recognises the knowledge that both teachers and learners bring to learning interactions, and it acknowledges the way that new knowledge and understandings can grow out of shared learning experiences. The principle of ‘ako’ affirms the value of the pair and group learning approaches in which students interact with their peers, teacher, tasks, and resources. These are very effective approaches for teaching and learning te reo Māori.

A great example of this happened the other night, I heard my 2 year old, Kawai in the bath singing a nursery rhyme I was unfamiliar with. He was singing it over and over again and wanted me to sing along with him. I asked if he could teach me the song that he knows, and he continued to sing;

Hey diddle, diddle!
The cat and the fiddle,
The cow jumped over the moon;
The little dog laughed
To see such sport,
And the dish ran away with the spoon.

I searched the song up online to learn how the tune goes and there was a YouTube clip, once Kawai heard the song his face instantly smiled and he started to sing louder and louder telling me that this was the song he learnt at school. I was amazed to see how confident he was singing the song and the joy in his face when he got to the end of it. I sat with him while he was in the bath and he taught me the song by repeating it over and over. This links strongly within my philosophy of teaching by embracing the concept of ‘Ako’ and having a reciprocal learning relationship with our tamariki. Empowering our young tamariki to share their learnings with the kaiako and surrounding whānau to build whanaungatanga within our learning community. Kawais development in the Pukeko room at Play Learn Grow has been immense. He comes home every day singing waiata that he has learnt, telling me his favourite books that his kaiako read to him and I can see his actively taking part in their class day to day routine.

This was an incredibly proud moment I felt as a parent, observing the learning and seeing his development be nurtured throughout the centre and bringing that home to share with our whānau. Our national curriculum Te Whāriki states that, “all children will be empowered to learn with and alongside others by engaging in experiences that have meaning for them.” (Ministry of Education, 2017, p. 13).  Early childhood centres play such a massive part in our young children’s lifelong learning. I’ve experienced the impact on our tamariki being a kaiako in training also having my baby go through his early learning journey in a ECE centre.

Pros and Cons of working and studying at the same time:

I think working at a centre and studying ECE has many pros for example:

  • Studying and learning different curriculums like Te Whariki
  • Putting theories into practise
  • Gaining work experience and being able to work along side a team that is in your sector. I am able to get advice and different perspectives
  • I can discuss topics in class as I have experienced working in a centre
  • Time management skills, able to multitask
  • Being able to work for your own money and not depend on parents or caregivers. I am able to spend and save my own money
  • Having a manager that allows me to have flexible hours during school

Cons of studying and working at the same time:

  • Can be stressful as you have to stay on top of your work or you will fall behind
  • Trying to manage work, study and socialising. At times it can be a lot to take in and you just need to take a break and spend time by yourself every now and then.

I think overall the pros of studying ECE and working at the same time for me personally outweigh the cons. I know that every student is different and what works well for me may not work well for them. I believe that is why it is important to find what works best for you, so that you are able to succeed while studying and working.

The benefits of living with Grandparents


Living with grandparents is fun in so many ways and heaps of benefits as well. It helps ease the burden of child caring and stress from the parents. Grandparents provide stability, wisdom, safety and fun. Grandparents helps ease financial burden from the parents. They are important source of life lessons sharing stories in the past and grandchildren already access to this knowledge. If something happens that affects the grandchildren like illness, divorce or dying in an accident grandparents are ready to give them the love and affections they need it would save them the stress of adjusting in a new environment. Grandchildren giving the grandparents a sense of purpose again in life. They experience a new sense of energy and some exercise.  The grandchildren research was shown kids who get to spend a lot of time with grandparents tend to have fewer emotional and behavioural problems

Manaakitanga in ECE

Mā te huruhuru, ka rere te manu.

Adorn the bird with feathers, so it can fly. (Whakataukī – Māori proverb)

At Play Learn Grow early childcare education centre we have a number of kaiako (teachers) with māori whakapapa (ancestry). This is why we are so passionate about Te Whāriki. He Whāriki Mātauranga mō ngā Mokopuna o Aotearoa – the early childcare education curriculum for Aoteoroa (New Zealand).

We demonstrate manaakitanga which is a crucual Māori principle that is at the heart of Te Whāriki: He Whāriki Mātauranga mō ngā Mokopuna o Aotearoa. We consider manaakitanga to be the process of enhancing peoples mana, by showing care, respect, kindness and generosity for others.

Manaakitanga weaves in to the strands of the ECE curriculum. The Ministry of Education state: “Children’s learning and development are fostered if the well-being of their family and community is supported; if their family, culture, knowledge and community are respected; and if there is a strong connection and consistency among all the aspects of the child’s world”. This is where manaakitanga comes in looking at pre-schoolers well-being in a holistic sense.

Manaakitanga at Play Learn Grow ECE

We kōrero with children about sharing (why it is important, praising good behaviours, politely pointing out not such good behaviour), kaitiakitanga (caring for the environment, another tikanga māori principle), welcoming new whānau (mihi whakatau or shorted pōwhiri for whānau of bigger kids) and settling periods as tamariki transition from home to Play Learn Grow ECE, or from another centre. We teaching care and respect for other tamariki, for our outdoor play area resources and indoor resources. Our kaiako to guide tamariki to set ground rules, and we remind tamariki if or when there is a rule breach of the rules they contributed to setting.

We do a short karakia before eating lunch, as we are thankful for it, and we build and nurture strong relationship with parents and staff. Play Learn Grow teachers create an environment of respect where our highly skilled teachers develop tamariki to grow and develop physically, mentally, socially, whilst playing and learning.

Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic we had visited places in the community. I took my kids to a local rest home to bring smiles on the faces of the elderly. We reach out to local schools and visit them to ensure the transition is not too hard. We listen to concerns of parents about sending in children into school environments with many hundreds of children, and to ease concerns we keep children past age 5 (tamariki have to go to school by their 6th birthday though). During changes in Alert Levels we communicate with whānau and stay open to serve the needs of Auckland’s essential workers (without other childcare options), even when some other centres stay shut.

Play Learn Grow teachers have completed or are enrolled in the Incredible Years Programme on child behaviour and management techniques. This is best practice, which certainly not every centre has their staff doing. However this is an important for Play Learn Grow teachers as we strive to be the best ECE centre in West Auckland.

Manaakitanga is all about caring and support for tamariki (children) – pre-schoolers in Play Learn Grow ECE), whānau (family) and kaiako (teachers). The Play Learn Grow culture is just so special to be a part of, and manaakitanga being so engrained in it by our Centre Manager, fellow kaiako, whānau and of course our beautiful tamariki. This to me is what sets out Play Learn Grow as the best ECE centre in West Auckland, and the best out of so many I have worked up over many years.

Top 7 tips to teach pre-schoolers to share

Sharing is another skill for pre-schoolers to learn, and for most it is not innate or natural. It is a learned skill. Young kids love that special toy and don’t know when they will get it back, or worse if they will ever get it back. This is a challenge to learn to interact socially and play together. As many year 1 primary school teachers have told us, this is another benefit of quality early childcare education. At Play Learn Grow ECE our skilled and experienced teachers are about to nurture these skills.

Play Learn Grow children from our teachers encouraging sharing in a nurturing and caring way

1) Set limits in advance

With my own kids sharing a favourite toy was tough. Just like at Play Laern early childcare education centre, we set equal time limits in the interests of fairness. I am aware of some whanau telling us another great use of the Watercare four minute shower timer – as a visual cue that shows toy time!

2) Recognise pre-schoolers’ feelings

Seeing that children may be concerned about not getting a favourite toy back, you can recognise their feelings. I asked today “are you worried you will not get your smiley face ball back”. This triggers the answer by body language with a head nod (for yes). I explained “I understand your concern, but you will get it back, we have to share so others don’t miss out. You can play with it later today”. It is irrelevant they choose not to play with it later in the day, that was their choice. This used manaakitanga by caring for the mana of the tamariki. Bonds get built from skilled teaching like this.

3) Correct bad sharing behavior
If or more likely when a situation occurs where a child if upset or reacts negatively to another child playing with a desired toy they wanted, then explain about sharing and they can have a turn after others also had a turn. Now a quick note for some parents expecting big things of their just turned 2 year olds – this takes a lot of practice at home and at preschool. At Play Learn Grow we have observed that very few under 3 years old are able to understand sharing without a lot of training at home and at our ECE Centre, and even then it is not perfect as they are so young. The great thing is get to practice at Play Learn Grow. We teach sharing and correct bad sharing behaviour, and after a while it becomes second nature!

4) Modelling good behaviour

Seeing sharing in action is great. At home you can do this even as an adult sharing things like chocolate, drink (from different cups or glasses) or even the TV remote. Point out when a family member sharing and praise them with “thank you for sharing {Dad} or whoever did the sharing”. This also helps create a nurturing culture of sharing.

Too often sharing opportunities are botched when it is someones turn and just a passing “cheers”, “thanks” or “ta” are stated. Until sharing is fully engrained it is best to use the sharing as a learning opportunity.

5) Share with your child

Try some activites with your kids that involve sharing, like basic games. We have done this with Duplo blocks and alternate so that one block is placed by each person participating in turn. Talk about sharing, turns and praise good behaviour.

6) Praise

Praise is such a powerful tool. When you say well done Hamish, or well done Deepika, children really feel good about themselves and their behaviour. When they do a good job of sharing make sure you tell them. Our Centre Manager at Play Learn Grow ECE has a wide range of phrases for praise including “well done Harper, great sharing”, “good playing Arihia, Sarah and Paiku love playing with you”, and “well done team, isn’t sharing fun?” asked as a question to reinforcement the teamwork and fun experience sharing is.

7) Preparation

Many parents are a bit anxious about a play-date with another child. It is important to prepare you child as the host of this event so your child(ren) understand that when Pat and Jen come over, they’ll need to share some toys. I have found it useful to pick out a few toys prior with my children, and to hide away that very special toy (or two) so they are not sharable, which minimises the risk of an emotional disregulation event or outburst.

Easy cooking activities for toddlers

10 easy cooking activities your kids will love!  

At Play Learn Grow our teachers are experts at getting creative, having fun and providing messy play environments for our tamariki.    It is much easier in our West Auckland ECE environment where we have the resources, the space and plenty of patience!  But there are also fun ways at home you can introduce cooking and food to your children that don’t involve so much mess! Below are 10 fun activities that also help to develop your toddlers fine motor skills, literacy and numeracy too.

  1. Measuring

Pull out the measuring spoons and teach your children how to use them.  You can do this with any ingredients in the house and your kids will love it – compare sizes and weights (small/large/heavy/light etc)

2. Pouring

Learning to pour accurately is a great tip to learn and works our fine motor skills.  You can do this with water or any other liquid you have in the house.  Play a game and try not to spill any water when you pour between bowls and vessels.  You could even try making ice blocks which they can enjoy once they freeze.

3. Stirring

Stirring ingredients is a basic cooking skill children can learn while they are young. If you get them involved while they are young, this is always a good task for them.  It also gives their arms a good workout!  Any recipe will do that involves mixing with a large spoon.

4. Preparation

Find an easy recipe and read it aloud to your child.  Then you can walk through the preparation steps with them before baking gets under way.  Understanding the importance of preparation before starting an activity is an essential life skill to learn.

5. Planning

Talk and include your children when it comes to meal planning.  Ask them about the meals they eat– breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks etc, and then have them help you write the shopping list or check the fridge/pantry to see what ingredients you already have.

6. Food washing and preparation

Get your children to help washing or peeling vegetables or other ingredients.  The more hands-on experience they have with certain foods the more likely they will be willing to try it.

7. Recipe creativity

Talk with your children about the food tastes that they like, and let them come up with some creations themselves. My children love to add cheese to any savoury meal, and love coming up with different smoothie ideas and crazy names like the ‘green monster’. 

8. Try something new

When you go to the supermarket, ask them to chose a new fruit or vegetable that they can add to a recipe.   Let them select one new thing to buy – on the condition they have to try it!

9. Fastfood at home

There’s no avoiding the love most children have for fast food, but you can adapt this by making a ‘happy meal’ at home.  I do this with the children’s lunch box – cooking chicken nuggets or mini burgers using other things I have in the house.  It’s much healthier and the children are just as excited by their lunch box dinner as they are by a trip to McDonalds!

10. Colours of the rainbow

Have fun by finding all the colours of the rainbow in your kitchen – they can be in food, utensils, appliances, plates and bowls..anything that you can find.  Be careful of the sharp objects with little ones though.

The benefits of learning a second language

Here at Play Learn Grow we embrace biculturalism, multiculturalism and diversity at our centre.  There are so many ethnicities found in our suburb of Kelston, it provides a wonderful opportunity for our tamariki to learn about them. Language is often the best place to start.

We are so proud to have staff and children from many different cultures and that speak more than one language (Te Reo, Samoan, Tongan, Chinese, Hindi, Fijian, Russian – just to name a few!). 

We incorporate Te Reo into our daily life at Play Learn Grow and our children love it, especially the singing.  There are so many benefits to introducing our children to different languages and cultures.

And it is never too early to begin learning a language: it’s fun, it promotes healthy development, and the many cognitive and social benefits will last a lifetime.

As a parent, you do not need to know a second language yourself, there are so many online resources to help you.

Here is a helpful link for te reo for example:

Write out simple words, post them around the house and use them when communicating with your child.   Learn a few expressions yourself and use them in everyday life at home.  Remember singing is a great way too to teach our children, so google the most popular toddler songs in the language of your choice.  You should find yourself some great catchy examples, even some well-known English songs that have been translated into other languages. 

Here are just some of the reasons why learning a language puts your child at a significant advantage:

1)It gives them a head start

Children who are exposed to another language before age five use the same part of the brain to acquire that second language that they use to learn their mother tongue. Younger learners are also uninhibited by the fear of making mistakes, which is sometimes an obstacle for older beginners.

2)The earlier they start, the longer they stay!

The length of time a student is able to devote to learning a language has a direct and positive correlation to cognitive development. Longer sequences also provide the opportunity for learners to grow alongside the additional language and culture, developing a deeper connection as they mature.

3)Feed Their Brains

Research shows that learning a second language boosts problem-solving, critical-thinking, and listening skills, in addition to improving memory, concentration, and the ability to multitask. Children proficient in other languages also show signs of enhanced creativity and mental flexibility.

4) Boost Their Academic Achievement

The cognitive benefits of learning a language have a direct impact on a child’s academic achievement. Compared to those without an additional language, bilingual children have improved reading, writing, and math skills, and they generally score higher on standardized tests.

5) Nurture Their Curiosity, Cultural Sensitivity, Empathy, and Tolerance

Children who are exposed early to other languages display more positive attitudes to the cultures associated with those languages. The experience of learning a language introduces them to the world in ways they might otherwise have not experienced.

6) Don’t Hesitate: Go for Two… or Three

Surprisingly, young children are not confused by the introduction of multiple languages at the same time. Not only do they naturally navigate multilingual environments, but acquiring a second language early in life primes the brain to learn multiple other languages, opening a world of opportunities for later on.

Supporting boys in the ECE Sector

Looking at different ways to help support the growth and the development of young boys in the ECE sector can be making sure that we have an inclusive environment that have multiple ways in which we can maximise their development and learning. 
Our tamariki learn by interacting within their environment with and alongside their peers and teachers and with with equipment and materials that are arranged in a way that it can enhance the way that tamariki use the materials available. The environment should be a safe and healthy one that has the best interests of the child at heart. We need to tautoko the whole child-learning where the tamariki learn through their senses, their emotions, language and cognitive skills all at the same time. We need to be using all of their senses throughout the day in multiple ways possible. Boys need to have a sense of leadership and control while they are learning and can be done by collecting treasures,  creating crafts, moving around the room, building different things like buildings, towers, bridges etc. 


The environment needs to be up to date with the child’s learning and development so they are always extending their knowledge. Another one to empower our boys are to give them choices that make them feel like they have a say. We need to make sure our environments are spacious so that there are more opportunities to interact and join in play. If there is more space,  more tamariki can have the chance to come and join in the play and contribute their own ideas etc. 
Sometimes we need to remember to take a step back and let them make their mistakes, to gave the chance to resolve conflicts with their peers by themselves and some freedom to go about their day without being constantly observed and judged. 
At Play Learn Grow we provide plenty of opportunities available for boys (and girls) to develop and strengthen their fine and gross motor skills, their hand -eye coordination, opportunities available for them to explore, problem solve and experiment. They need plenty of opportunities to be creative and to participate in art activities that help foster their creative skills.
In our environments we have resources that our tamariki can use in many other ways. Two options of open ended play examples are sandpit and water play, there are many ways to use these and extend these in their play. At Play Learn Grow early childcare we have sandpits for under 2 year olds, 2 – 4 year olds and in the over 4 year olds playground areas.

For closed ended play we have puzzles which can be done once and only one way. There are also resources that can help tautoko dramatic play for boys like hard hats, fireman hat and coats, clothes, suitcase or briefcase, and then there are the smaller things like animals, people, sort toys and dolls. With these resources they can help extend the child’s learning and their play. This is role playing which they would have seen at home or out in the community. 

Play Learn Grow boys especially love playing with the dinosaurs

Ways in which we can help extend a boy-friendly environment can be by adding extras into different areas for example, the book area. Play Learn Grow provide books about cars, trucks, construction, animals, yucky things, science and insects. We use our colour A3 printer as a learning tool and add some photos of some of these things for visuals. In our block area Play Learn Grow add some more kids of blocks, animals, cars and trucks, and construction toys as well as adding some pictures into this area too.

In our whānau corner we introduce equipment like a BBQ, a mini workbench, a kitchen unit, a briefcase, gardening tools, tools, toy lawn mower etc. The art area has plenty of boxes, bottle tops, empty bottles of shampoo, conditioner and body wash and other resources that you use in the home to help extend their play and their learning.
Feel free to email us with any other ideas you have.

Nurturing Our Treasures At Home

Tena Koutou Katoa, Talofa lava, Malo e lelei, Ni sa bula vinaka, Ni hao, and warm greetings to you all.

It is all becoming familiar with these lockdowns, stay safe in our bubbles and our minds are full of many different thoughts and one important thought is our ‘Tamariki’s Education’.

Here at Play Learn Grow our Philosophy/Rapunga Whakaaro We believe that people are the heart of the matter.

We acknowledge all our Whanau Families as you are the first educators to your beautiful treasures and We understand the importance in building relationships through unconditional support, respect and understanding to create a true sense of trust and belonging for everyone.

Create a home programme plan, keep it simply make it fun! focus on:

  • From children’s interests or needs

The purpose of planning to contribute and provide experiences towards positive outcomes to show more positive good behaviors around your home and to ensure that their development and learning are interconnected.

Actions: take time to collect materials e.g., Child interest might be trips to the ‘Beach’ or walks through the ‘Bush’

  • Shells
  • Seaweed
  • Driftwood
  • Stones
  • Flowers
  • Leaves
  • Seeds and cones

Learning outcomes through stimulate thinking communication open and ended questions, encourage the tamariki, be flexible, give them a lot of time, use soft tone, listening to their voices, provide a range of experiences, and remember make it fun, sing songs, play games, read books.

Reflections can be writing a learning story together with your tamariki and illustrate it with some of the samples discovered, and you are most welcome to forward the learning story on your tamariki portifolio   playleargrow.educa.nz and Kaiako’s are able to follow through with comments/feedback/notes on how to extend the tamariki’s learning.

Encouragement to our Whanau and together with Play Learn Grow Kaiako’s will continue to work together and stay positive to help nurture our treasure’s “The Tamariki” and find their place in the world.

Reference Te Whariki p.g 17

Principles Kaupapa whakahaere Tū mai e moko. Te whakaata o ō mātua. Te moko o ō tīpuna. Stand strong, O moko.

The reflection of your parents. The blueprint of your ancestors. The curriculum is underpinned by four principles: empowerment | whakamana, holistic development | kotahitanga, family and community | whānau tangata, and relationships | ngā hononga. These principles are the foundations of curriculum decision making and a guide for every aspect of pedagogy and practice. This whakataukī encourages mokopuna to stand strong, proud in the knowledge that they are the embodiment of all those who have gone before them. [In Te Whāriki] children are valued as active learners who choose, plan, and challenge. This stimulates a climate of reciprocity, ‘listening’ to children (even if they cannot speak), observing how their feelings, curiosity, interest, and knowledge are engaged in their early childhood environments, and encouraging them to make a contribution to their own learning. Smith (2007)

Reference Te Whariki p.g 19

Principle 2 Holistic development | Kotahitanga Early childhood curriculum reflects the holistic way children learn and grow. Mā te whāriki e whakaata te kotahitanga o ngā whakahaere katoa mō te ako a te mokopuna, mō te tipu o te mokopuna.

Human development can be thought of in terms of cognitive (hinengaro), physical (tinana), emotional (whatumanawa), spiritual (wairua), and social and cultural dimensions, but these dimensions need to be viewed holistically, as closely interwoven and interdependent. For Māori the spiritual dimension is fundamental to holistic development because it connects the other dimensions across time and space. Because children develop holistically, they need a broad and rich curriculum that enables them to grow their capabilities across all dimensions. When focusing on a particular area of learning, kaiako need to consider how this focus relates to and connects with other aspects of learning and how it builds on the children’s strengths. Every aspect of the context – physical surroundings, emotional state, relationships with others and immediate needs – will affect what children learn from any particular experience. A holistic approach sees the child as a person who wants to learn, the task as a meaningful whole and the whole as greater than the sum of its parts. It is important that kaiako have knowledge and understanding of the holistic way in which children develop and learn. They should also be aware of the different views that the cultures represented in their ECE setting may have of child development and the role of family and whānau.